Direct Energy Deposition (DED) is typically used to repair parts or add material onto components. It is capable of creating whole parts and is used for high volume parts, but since the geometrical complexity cannot reach the same level of PBF-parts, PBF is still the most common way to produce complex parts additively.
While the laser or electron beam in PBF-technologies hits a static bed of powder, in DED-technologies, the laser hits the material at the same time it is deposited from a nozzle. The material can be a wire or powder.
As is tradition in additive manufacturing technologies, there are many names for this technology as well, such as Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS), Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing (EBAM), and Direct Metal Deposition (DMD).
operating principle of DED with metal powder using a laser: